Xanthomonas wilt (XW) disease of banana (Musa spp.) Plant Pathol 56(6):1038–1038. Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), or banana bacterial wilt (BBW) or enset wilt is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. [10] Insects, namely stingless bees (Apidae), fruit flies (Drosophilidae) and grass flies (Chloropidae), transmit the disease from banana to banana after being drawn to the infected nectar. East Afr Agric For J 40(1):111–114. The average wilting percentage for surveyed mats per field gave the disease severity for that field. Bioversity International, Kampala, Karamura D, Karamura E, Tinzaara W (2012) Banana cultivar names, synonyms and their usage in Eastern Africa. Video on how to identify the symptoms of Xanthomonas wilt, how the bacterium is transmitted and the cultural practices that can be applied to prevent and control… Xanthomonas wilt of banana on Vimeo reduced banana productivity a reasonable level of food and in-comesecuritywasmaintained(Edmeadesetal. Similarly, the agro-ecological zone, cropping system, banana type, and cultivars were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with severity in single and multiple models. Uwamahoro, F., Berlin, A., Bylund, H. et al. A cross section of the BXW infected banana is characterized by the yellow- orange discoloration of the vascular bundles and dark brown tissue scarring. By combining disease survey and interviews, this study identified several factors that influence banana Xanthomonas wilt occurrence in Rwanda: agro-ecological locations; farming practices like cropping systems, spacing, banana types, and grown cultivars; farmers’ knowledge; application of disease management; and information distribution channels. A considerable proportion of farmers (22 to 35%) mentioned other methods like oozing from the cut end, premature wilting of the male bud, and the whole plant wilting. Use household bleach (1 bleach : 4 water), solutions containing local plants with … For decades, Xanthomonas vasicola pv.musacearum (Xvm) has been an economically important bacterial pathogen on enset in Ethiopia. Although extensive management of the disease outbreaks has helped reduce the impact of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt even today BXW continues to a pose a real problem to the banana farmer of Central and East Africa. The authors greatly acknowledge the funding institutions for the financial support rendered to the corresponding author. CRS Press Taylor and Francis Group, York, pp 117–138, Jaworski T, Hilszczański J (2013) The effect of temperature and humidity changes on insects development their impact on forest ecosystems in the expected climate change. These findings are consistent with those of Night et al. 2013; Rutikanga et al. After being originally identified on a close relative of banana, Ensete ventricosum, in Ethiopia in the 1960s, BXW emanated in Uganda in 2001 affecting all types of banana cultivars. But uprooting a complete mat is understandably time-consuming and labour-intensive and becomes very difficult when a large number of diseased mats have to be removed. However, Shimwela et al. Permissions team. Agric Ecosyst Environ 114:170–184. musacearum is capable of entirely destroying a plantation while nematodes can The first farm appearance variable was not associated with the disease incidence, but for the fit of the model, it was kept since the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) (Akaike 1974) substantially increased when it was removed. musacearum and time to disease expression after inflorescence infection in East African highland and Pisang Awak bananas in Uganda", "The effectiveness of different herbicides in the destruction of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt infected plants", "Plantwise Knowledge Bank | Banana xanthomonas wilt", "Expression of sweet pepper Hrap gene in banana enhances resistance to, Musapedia page on Xanthomonas Wilt of banana, The McKnight Foundation, most recent overview of Banana Xanthomonas Wilt, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) annual report, BXW disease management, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banana_Xanthomonas_wilt&oldid=993457395, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 18:34. The major source of knowledge in this study is fellow farmers (80%) followed by local leaders (53%) and agricultural officers (53%) (Table 2C). Acta Hortic 828:395–404. Conference on international Agricultural Research for Development, Bonn. 2011), and the majority of interviewees in this study (70% and 58%) were aware of these means respectively (Table 2A). Understanding of disease status, driving factors and farmers’ knowledge provide insights towards a sustainable management approach. And some farmers (13% in Huye, 27% in Rusizi, and 53% in Nyamasheke districts) received trainings by Rwanda Agriculture Board staffs, MINAGRI, and local NGOs. 2011). 2018). musacearum in the banana plant after garden tool-mediated infection. Some disease management practices are common in some districts and rarely practiced in others (Table 2B). Additionally, some farmers tend to hide the symptoms by cutting down infected stems at night and leaving fresh infected stems in the fields to avoid being told to uproot all their bananas (pers. 2013). Plant Dis 93(5):440–451. The pathogen's rapid spread has threatened the livelihood of millions of Africans who rely on banana fruit for food security and income. Disease spread has been primarily linked with the transport of plants shoots for replanting. Male bud symptoms are firstly observed if an infection has occurred via the male inflorescence part, while leaf wilting symptoms are the first to be observed if the infection occurred via other plant parts such as roots, corm, leaf sheaths and leaves. This will cause considerable impact on food security and call for reinforcement of disease management and information distribution. In: A handbook of statistical analyses using R, 2nd edn. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Bioversity International, Kampala, Kubiriba J, Tushemereirwe W (2014) Approaches for the control of banana Xanthomonas wilt in East and Central Africa. Transmission means of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. Banana Xanthomonas Wilt (BXW), or banana bacterial wilt (BBW) or enset wilt is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. Fifty-five percent of the farmers knew the symptoms of fruit premature ripening. The presence of banana Xanthomonas wilt in all surveyed districts indicates that despite the efforts and campaigns to combat the disease (Murekezi 2009) it continued to spread across the country if compared with the report from 2009 to 2010 (Night et al. Male buds need to be cut off quickly after the fruit has been set. Before the advent of BXW major biotic constraints were black leaf streak (Sigatoka), Fusarium wilt, bunchy top and streak viruses, weevils and nematodes. Management of banana Xanthomonas wilt in East and Central Africa In order to harmonize the evaluation of the tools, participants developed tools (criteria) for quantitatively comparing the various tools employed and subsequently applied the criteria on the diagnostic and management tools employed against the Xanthomonas wilt of bananas. Only the variables that showed high association to disease incidence or severity in a single and multiple models were tested in the reduced multiple models as described in Uwamahoro et al. plants, obtained from triazole-based treatment were affected by Fusarium wilt, while only 12% of daughter plants originating from TTO-based treatment applied to mother plants were affected by the disease. However, considering severe impact of the disease, keeping track of its status and farmers’ knowledge over time would help to understand the factors responsible of its continual spread or persistence. [8] Many factors may affect the combination of disease symptoms on show. 2011). Moreover, involving banana farmers in disease surveillance, extension, and decision-making would motivate them to own the problem. This study was therefore conducted to assess the distribution of Xanthomonas wilt in Rwanda during two consecutive years (2015 and 2016) and to determine the factors associated with disease occurrence. This could be due to the importance that the farmers attribute to the crop or that the farmers are unaware of management methods, as observed in Nyamagabe where none of the farmers is aware of tools sterilization for management of Xanthomonas wilt and hence the method is not practiced. A detailed study should be conducted to understand the mechanisms behind these findings. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2018.03.002, Murekezi C (2009) Xanthomonas wilt management in Rwanda. The knowledge source plays an important role in the quality of displayed information. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Previously it was The disease was first discovered on Enset (a banana-relative, also called false banana) in Ethiopia in 1967 and first spread to East Africa (Uganda) in 2001. This is to reduce the risk of moving bacteria on cutting tools; Clean cutting tools. X. vasicola pv.Musacearum (formerly Xanthomonas campestris pv musacearum) causes Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) also known as banana bacterial wilt (BBW) and its close relative ensete (Valentine et al., 2006).Xvm is a gram-negative rod-shaped … musacearum) in Rwanda. The continued spread of banana Xanthomonas wilt in East and Central Africa can be attributed to inappropriate application of management practices, lack of appropriate methods for farm tools disinfection, and failure in applying regulations and quarantine measures (Tinzaara et al. musacearum may contaminate the soil for four months and more. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2010.879.81, Uwamahoro F, Berlin A, Bylund H, Bucagu C, Yuen J (2018) Potato bacterial wilt in Rwanda: occurrence, risk factors, farmers’ knowledge and attitudes. That BXW may be present disease of banana Xanthomonas wilt effective way of destroying infected banana crop type of campestris. Detect Xanthomonas wilt ( XW ) disease of banana Xanthomonas wilt ( )... Agriculture and Animal Resources of the farms previously demonstrated ( Tripathi et al information distribution be sorted two... Indicates a particular type of X. campestris that only infects banana and its close relative.... 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