Error rating book. 2. By living as part of a community and abiding by that community’s laws, a person receives a framework in which to practice living virtuously. Other people can help us act virtuously by improving our ability to deliberate or, … Now tyranny is the very contrary of this; the tyrant pursues his own good. Aristotle asks good human beings to be self-lovers, devoting special attention to virtue’s most fundamental groundwork. In this essay I want to compare Aristotle’s view of friendship to the view found in the teaching… Within these broad claims about human excellence and the qualities of a good life, Aristotle defines methods and terms that continue to influence many aspects of contemporary ethical thinking. Democracy is the least bad of the deviations;”, “Moral experience—the actual possession and exercise of good character—is necessary truly to understand moral principles and profitably to apply them.”, “bad men... aim at getting more than their share of advantages, while in labor and public service they fall short of their share; and each man wishing for advantage to himself criticizes his neighbor and stands in his way; for if people do not watch it carefully the common weal is soon destroyed. Here, Aristotle advocates for friendliness and civility even with people who are not our close friends. Some of Aristotle’s best-known works on ethics can be found in his book Nicomachean Ethics, which was published in approximately 340 BCE. The best quotes from The Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle - organized by theme, including book location and character - with an explanation to help you understand! 11, no. Refresh and try again. Aristotle says that just as virtuous behavior improves an individual, friends have the potential to … "Plato and Aristotle on Friendship and Altruism, in Mind (1977) Vol. The constitutions are monarchy, aristocracy, and thirdly that which is based on a property qualification, which it seems appropriate to call timocratic, though most people are wont to call it polity. goodness, pleasure and utility - noted at 1155 b 18-19. Aristotle will spend the rest of the Ethics proving this statement. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. We’d love your help. In unequal friendship, it is important that each Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. His carriage is sedate, his voice deep, his speech measured; he is not given to hurry, for he is concerned about only a few things; he is not prone to vehemence, for he thinks nothing very important. 1 For friendship is a virtue, 2 or involves virtue; and also it is one of the most indispensable requirements of life. How are these three typesof friendship supposed to be related to one another? Nicomachean Ethics. The best of these is monarchy, the worst timocracy. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. This is an engaging and accessible introduction to the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle's great masterpiece of moral philosophy. But a man who breaks off such a friendship would seem to be doing nothing strange; for it was not to a man of this sort that he was a friend; when his friend changed, therefore, and he is unable to save him, he gives him up.”, “There are three kinds of constitution, and an equal number of deviation-forms--perversions, as it were, of them. Book 9, Chapter 1. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Aristotle's account of Friendship in the Nicomachean Ethics A. D. M. WALKER The Nicomachean Ethics, as is well known, distinguishesthree types of friendship-the friendship of goodness, the friendship of pleasure, and the friendship of utility. Get free homework help on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics: book summary, chapter summary and analysis and original text, quotes, essays, and character analysis courtesy of CliffsNotes. 14 Contemplating Friendship in Aristotle’s Ethics affection, this is not the whole story.61As I argue below, in the Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defines friendship as the reciprocal giving and receiving of affection between persons who both have knowledge of one another’s good- will. Monarchy passes over into tyranny; for tyranny is the evil form of one-man rule and the bad king becomes a tyrant. Aristotle uses the language of distributive justice to explain this concept. Nicomachean Ethics. Marcus Aurelius - How to Think Clearly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2eB5zqN01oo---At age 17, Aristotle enrolled in the Platonic Academy. Welcome back. Nicomachean Ethics. Laws exist as a key part of the structure of any community, and laws are, at base, put in place so as to maintain virtue and stave off vice. He takes pains to point out that this friendliness must be balanced, however. A person who seems disagreeable about everything will never progress very far, but a person who behaves in an ingratiating way to everybody, who tries to please everyone and cause no hurt, will ultimately cause damage to him/herself and others too. Rather, we are by nature able to acquire them, and we are completed through habit. At the core of this view of politics stands a sense of friendship. Ross, Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle makes the argument that friends can be regarded as second selves. And we enlist partners in deliberation on large issues when we distrust our own ability to discern [the right answer]. In his view, true friendship is not defined by what people need or want from each other because those things are likely to change with time. The human good proves to be activity of the soul in accord with virtue. One aspect of human nature Aristotle examines is that of friendship. It is no concern of his that he should be praised, or that others should be blamed. Friendship based on pleasure is higher than that based on usefulness. The result is that they are in a state of faction, putting compulsion on each other but unwilling themselves to do what is just.”, “How can a man know what is good or best for him, and yet chronically fail to act upon his knowledge?”, “It is well said, then, that it is by doing just acts that the just man is produced, and by doing temperate acts the temperate man; without doing these no one would have even a prospect of becoming good.”, “men cannot know each other till they have ‘eaten salt together’;”, “The beginning seems to be more than half of the whole.”, “Such [communistic] legislation may have a specious appearance of benevolence; men readily listen to it, and are easily induced to believe that in some wonderful manner everybody will become everybody's friend, especially when some one is heard denouncing the evils now existing in states, suits about contracts, convictions for perjury, flatteries of rich men and the like, which are said to arise out of the possession of private property. One of the many subjects that Aristotle tackles in The Nicomachean Ethics is the concept and practice of friendship. With all individual actions, it is the intellect which must determine the course of proper morality and strength of character; the path of right action elucidated in Nicomachean Ethics thus grounds itself in that personal aim for moral excellence. Michael Pakaluk offers a thorough and lucid examination of the entire work, uncovering Aristotle's motivations and basic views while paying careful attention to his arguments. Now those who wish goods to their friend for the friend’s own sake are friends most of all; for they have this attitude because of the friend himself, not coincidentally. Aristotle addresses the topic of friendship in Book 8 and 9 of his Nicomachean Ethics. Nicomachean Ethics | Quotes. On the whole, friendships consist of equal exchanges, whether of utility, pleasantness, or goodness. Edited by Richard McKeon. New York: Random House, 1941. Aristotle equates the relationship between friends to the terms of justice normally reserved for conversations about "social contract." Timocracy passes over into democracy; for these are coterminous, since it is the ideal even of timocracy to be the rule of the majority, and all who have the property qualification count as equal. According to Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics, the three types of friendship are friendship for the sake of pleasure, friendship for the sake of utility, and perfect friendship. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. The Nicomachean Ethics (/ ˌ n ɪ k oʊ ˈ m æ k i ə n /; Ancient Greek: Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, Ēthika Nikomacheia) is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics, consists of ten books, originally separate scrolls, and is understood to be based on notes from his lectures at the Lyceum. concepts. It is important that friendship be active, since Aristotle treats friendship as an energeia, akin to pleasure and happiness. A balanced friendliness with strangers need not entail bending over backward for others, merely that we treat them as we would a friend, without expecting the true underlying fondness we have for actual friends. These evils, however, are due to a very different cause - the wickedness of human nature. However, the few cultivated people, the virtuous, understand that happiness comes from friendship… Here, rather than the friendship of fellow citizens or political collaborators, Aristotle discusses the friendship of truly close friends. Our selection comes from around 350 B.C.E. Aristotle explains that friendship is the act of loving rather than the act of being loved. Od. Nicomachean Ethics, written by Aristotle, focuses on the good in life and how one can achieve it. Must the friendship, then, be forthwith broken off? Aristotle. Aristotle describes how communities, which are a larger extension of friendship, can help a person live with virtue through the upholding of societal structure. Deliberation concerns what is usually [one way rather than another], where the outcome is unclear and the right way to act is undefined. In friendships with dissimilar aims, Aristotle says, there has to be an equalizer of some sort; for example, in political friendship, money is the common measure, governing the exchange between a cobbler or a weaver and their customers. Happiness is not something bestowed naturally upon people, nor is happiness incompatible with humanity. of that service. And it is clearer in the case of tyranny that it is the worst deviation-form; but it is the contrary of the best that is worst. Virtue of character is a mean ... between two vices, one of excess and one of deficiency. 1. He is of a disposition to do men service, though he is ashamed to have a service done to him. Or is this not so in all cases, but only when one’s friends are incurable in their wickedness? book. Bad people can be friends for reasons of pleasure or utility, but only good people can be friends for each other’s sake. For a man is not a king unless he is sufficient to himself and excels his subjects in all good things; and such a man needs nothing further; therefore he will not look to his own interests but to those of his subjects; for a king who is not like that would be a mere titular king. 1153a 23”, “The self-indulgent man craves for all pleasant things... and is led by his appetite to choose these at the cost of everything else.”, “With the truth, all given facts harmonize; but with what is false, the truth soon hits a wrong note.”, “We must not listen to those who advise us 'being men to think human thoughts, and being mortal to think mortal thoughts' but must put on immortality as much as possible and strain every nerve to live according to that best part of us, which, being small in bulk, yet much more in its power and honour surpasses all else.”, “The beauty of the soul shines out when a man bears with composure one heavy mischance after another, not because he does not feel them, but because he is a man of high and heroic temper.”, “The life of money-making is one undertaken under compulsion, and wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking; for it is merely useful and for the sake of something else.”, “Happiness does not lie in amusement; it would be strange if one were to take trouble and suffer hardship all one's life in order to amuse oneself”, “Virtue lies in our power, and similarly so does vice; because where it is in our power to act, it is also in our power not to act...”, “Even in adversity, nobility shines through, when a man endures repeated and severe misfortune with patience, not owing to insensibility but from generosity and greatness of soul.”, “Wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking; for it is merely useful and for the sake of something else.”, “He is happy who lives in accordance with complete virtue and is sufficiently equipped with external goods, not for some chance period but throughout a complete life.”, “Happiness then, is found to be something perfect and self sufficient, being the end to which our actions are directed.”, “What is evil neither can nor should be loved; for it is not one’s duty to be a lover of evil or to become like what is bad; and we have said that like is dear to like. In this excerpt from his book, Aristotle defines three types of friendship. Aristotle describes how virtue, and therefore happiness, can be effectively attained through purposeful practice. Gerson points out a close parallel be-tween this passage and Timaeus 90b1–d7 (Aristotle and Other Platonists, 244, 255) zena hitz Aristotle on Self-Knowledge and Friendship philosophers’ imprint – 2 – vol. But one may have many friends on the basis of usefulness or pleasure. 532-554. (8.11.1161a23-27) Aristotle continues to map the concept of intimate friendships onto political life in order to see how these relationships work on the macrocosmic levels. 12 (august 2011) Here, Aristotle describes the importance of friendship to decision-making. Aristocracy passes over into oligarchy by the badness of the rulers, who distribute contrary to equity what belongs to the city-all or most of the good things to themselves, and office always to the same people, paying most regard to wealth; thus the rulers are few and are bad men instead of the most worthy. Such friendship is rare and takes time to develop, but it is the best. [T]he virtues arise in us neither by nature nor against nature. The friendship of brothers is like that of comrades...also resembling this friendship is the friendship pertaining to timocracy, for the citizens wish to be equals and equitable. Essay 1: Eudaimonia in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics || Essay 3: Egoism in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Bibliography Annas, Julia. Anyone can share a belief with another person, but friends will be able to work together effectively to improve the world. True friendship is rather defined by a love for another person regardless of what can be received from them because of a mutual admiration for each other’s unchanging moral character, independent of situational factors. This idea feeds into Aristotle’s emphasis on the importance of politics to human life—the meeting of multiple minds to deliberate on how to increase the happiness of themselves and their community. Aristotle (385 BCE – 322 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist. happiness reasons real purpose #2 86, pp. Considering Aristotle and Nicomachean Ethics on Friendship Can friendships be sorted into one of three categories as Aristotle postulated? Unless you have another assignment within this text, here’s what to do: Give yourself an overview of the whole here. The good of man is a working of the soul in the way of excellence in a complete life.”, “Bad people...are in conflict with themselves; they desire one thing and will another, like the incontinent who choose harmful pleasures instead of what they themselves believe to be good.”, “The pleasures arising from thinking and learning will make us think and learn all the more. Friendship is one of the essential components of the good life, and the value of friendship … 9.1", "denarius") ... Our next business after this will be to discuss Friendship. It is impossible to have a perfect friendship with many people, because such a friendship takes a long time to build and requires a lot of time to maintain. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics H. Rackham, Ed. Since we are still talking about what he had to say way back in 350 B.C.E., we are not going to throw out his analysis of friendships. 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